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Fundamental of Embedded Systems

Understand the Basic Concept of Hardware, Software and Application in Embedded Systems.
Harish Kumar Maheshwari
7,269 students enrolled
English [Auto]
Basic Knowledge of Embedded Systems.
Basic Knowledge of Processor.
Learn about the Hardware in Embedded Systems.
Learn about the Software in Embedded Systems.
Learn about the Programming in Embedded Systems.
Learn about the Application in Embedded Systems.

If you want to start the Carrier in world of Embedded Systems? If you want to work with  Hardware and Software in Embedded System?

If yes, then let us started with this course here you understand all about Embedded systems step by step. The aim of this course is to guide the learner from zero level to up level.

The topics covered in this course are:

  • What is System?

  • What is Embedded System?

  • What is Processor?

  • Difference between Microprocessor &  Microcontroller.

  • Layout model of Embedding System.

  • Embedded System for a car.

  • Components of Embedded System.

  • Embedded System Hardware.

  • Features of an Embedded System.

  • Future of Embedded Processors.

  • Programming Languages for Embedded Systems.

  • Classifications of Embedded System.

    • What is Real-time Embedded Systems?

    • What is Stand Alone Embedded Systems?

    • What is Network Embedded Systems?

    • What is Mobile Embedded Systems?

    • What is Small Scale Embedded System?

    • What is Medium Scale Embedded System?

    • What is Sophisticated Embedded System

  • Embedded System Constraints.

  • Applications of Embedded System.

By these topics you understand all about embedded Systems.


Introduction of the Course

Discuss the Course Content.

Course Content

What is System?
  • A system is a way of working, organizing or doing one or many tasks according to a fixed plan, program or set of rules.

  • A system is also an arrangement in which all its units assemble and work together according to the plan or program.




What is Embedded System?

An Embedded System is one that has computer hardware with software embedded in it as one of its important components.

What is Processor?
  • A Processor is the heart of the Embedded System.

  • An embedded processor is a microprocessor that is used in an embedded system.

  • For an embedded system designer knowledge of microprocessor and microcontroller is a must.

Difference between Microprocessor &  Microcontroller.

Microprocessor and Microcontroller

CPU is stand alone, RAM,ROM, I/O & timer

are separate.

CPU, RAM,ROM, I/O & timer all are on

single chip.

Designer can decide amount of RAM,ROM,

& I/O ports.

Fixed amount of on-chip RAM,ROM, & I/O


High processing power Low processing power

High power consumption Low power consumption

Typically 32/64 bit 8/16 bit

General purpose Single purpose(control oriented)

Less reliable Highly reliable

Eg.- 8086,8085


Layout model of Embedding System.

Show Layout of Embedded System

Example of Embedded System.

Show Some General Example of Embedded System in Picture

Embedded System for a Car.

Show the Embedded Systems which are use in a Modern Car.

Components of Embedded System.
  • It has Hardware Processor, Timers, Interrupt controller, I/O Devices, Memories, Ports, etc.

  • It has main Application Software Which may perform concurrently the series of tasks or multiple tasks.

  • It has Real Time Operating System (RTOS) RTOS defines the way the system work. Which supervise the application software. It sets the rules during the execution of the application program.A small scale embedded system may not need an RTOS.

Embedded System Hardware.

Show the Hardware which are use in Embedded System.

Features of an Embedded System.


 Executes a single program, repeatedly


 Low cost, low power, small, fast, etc.

 Life threatening

 24/7/365

Reactive and real-time

 Continually reacts to changes in the system’s environment

 Must compute certain results in real-time without delay

Future of Embedded Processors.

Embedded processor account for 100% worldwide

microprocessor production

  • Microprocessor production


  • Embedded processors in a house 40-50(approx)

  • Embedded processors in a modern car 50-60

Languages for Programming Embedded Systems.
  • Assembly language was the pioneer for programming embedded systems till recently.

  • Nowadays there are many more languages to program these systems. Some of the languages are C, C++, Ada, Forth, and Java together with its new enhancement J2ME.

  • The majority of software for embedded systems is still done in C language.

Classifications of Embedded System.

Show the types of embedded System in tree form

What is Real-time Embedded Systems?
  • Embedded systems in which some specific work has to be done in a specific time period are called real-time systems.

  • Real time embedded systems are classified into two types such as soft and hard real time systems.

What is Stand Alone Embedded Systems?
  • Stand alone embedded systems do not require a host system

like a computer, it works by itself.

  • It takes the input from the input ports either analog or digital

and processes, calculates and converts the data and gives the

resulting data through the connected device-Which either

controls, drives and displays the connected devices.

  • Examples:- mp3 players, digital cameras, video game

consoles, microwave ovens and temperature measurement


What is Network Embedded Systems?
  • These types of embedded systems are related to a network to

access the resources.

  • The connected network can be LAN,WAN or the internet.

  • Example:- home security system wherein all sensors are

connected and run on the protocol TCP/IP

What is Mobile Embedded Systems?
  • Mobile embedded systems are used in portable embedded devices

like cell phones, mobiles, digital cameras, mp3 players and

personal digital assistants, etc.

  • The basic limitation of these devices is the other resources and

limitation of memory.

What is Small Scale Embedded System?
  • Single 8 bit or 16bit Microcontroller.

  • Little hardware and software complexity.

  • They may even be battery operated.

  • Usually “C” is used for developing these system.

  • The need to limit power dissipation when system is running


  • Examples:- digital watches

  • Programming tools:

Editor, Assembler and Cross Assembler

What is Medium Scale Embedded System?
  • Single or few 16 or 32 bit microcontrollers or

Digital Signal Processors (DSP) or Reduced

Instructions Set Computers (RISC).

  • Both hardware and software complexity.

  • Examples:- Ipod’s

  • Programming tools:

C, C++, java, RTOS, Source code

Engineering Tool, Simulator, Debugger and

Integrated Development Environment (IDE).

What is Sophisticated Embedded System
  • It uses more than 32 bit microcontroller.

  • Enormous hardware and software complexity

  • Which may need scalable processor or configurable processor and

programming logic arrays.

  • Constrained by the processing speed available in their hardware units.

  • Examples:-washing machine

  • Programming Tools:

For these systems may not be readily available at a reasonable

cost or may not be available at all. A compiler or retargetable compiler

might have to br developed for this.

Embedded System Constraints.

An embedded system is software designed to keep in

view three constraints:

  • Available system memory

  • Available processor speed

  • The need to limit the power dissipation

When running the system continuously in cycles of wait

for events, run, stop and wakeup.

Applications of Embedded System.

Show the Application of Embedded System in Different area.


Conclusion of the Course

Information About Certificate.

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